什么是暴饮暴食障碍?

暴饮暴食(或床)的特征是定期和强迫食用大量食物,通常会迅速,而不是胃过多的不适或疼痛。它affects more than 3.5% of women and 2% of menin the United States, making it the most common eating disorder in the country.

暴饮暴食者是情绪激动的人。尽管其他疾病通常是女性常见的两倍,但床的歧视性较小,大约有40%的患有这种疾病的人是男性。在女性中,最常见的是成年初。在男人中,当他们达到中年。床影响每个年龄,性别,种族,种族,体型和文化背景的人。大多数(但不是全部)患有床的人超重。

One factor that distinguishes BED from normal, occasional overeating is a feeling that you have no control over your eating habits. You may eat too much, too quickly, when you are not hungry, and even continue eating after you’re full to the point of discomfort. You may try to eat in alone or secretly in order to hide how much you’re eating, and feel embarrassment, shame, or guilt about your eating behavior. Although you vow to stop, you find yourself binge eating again and again. If you experience this type of binge eating at least once a week for three consecutive months, you may be diagnosed with BED.

床和贪食症有什么区别?

贪食症is characterized by overeating and purging, or trying to compensate for consuming too many calories by vomiting, using laxatives or overexercising. If you have BED, you don’t routinely use any of these methods to try to “undo” any weight gain you might experience from overeating. But even though it is uncommon, you can have BED and not be overweight, thanks to your individual genetic makeup or a particularly fast metabolism.

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What Causes BED?

Although BED is associated with underlying emotional issues, the exact cause is unknown. The condition can likely be attributed to a combination of psychological, behavioral, and environmental influences. Some known factors that can increase your risk of developing BED include:

  • A family history of eating disorders. If your parent or siblings have, or had, an eating disorder, you are at a greater risk of developing one.
  • A history of psychological issues or negative self-worth. Certain thought patterns and mood disorders are closely associated with BED, including depression, anger, anxiety, a strong need to be in control, perfectionism and rigidity, a need to please others, and negative feelings about yourself, your body, and your accomplishments.
  • A history of dieting. While people with BED have a range of body types, they often have a long history of restricting calories.
  • 重大损失,关系问题或创伤经历。床可以是试图应对压力并与情绪痛苦保持距离的一种方式。
  • 经验与性虐待、身体虐待、魏ght discrimination, and/or bullying. Studies have found that people with BED and other eating disorders often report a personal history of abusive events.1

How BED Affects Your Health and Well-Being

BED stems from, and can cause, a variety of emotional, physical, and psychological issues. You may ultimately experience physical complications such as:

  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Heart disease
  • Type II diabetes
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Fatigue
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • 骨关节炎
  • Certain cancers
  • Sleep apnea

You may also experience psychological and emotional conditions that are often linked with BED, including:

  • Feeling bad about yourself or your life
  • Poor quality of life
  • 在工作,个人生活中或社交活动中运作的问题
  • Anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and substance abuse disorder

在哪里获得帮助和期望

BED is an illness that requires proper diagnoses and treatment. You didn’t choose to have the condition, but you can choose to seek advise and get medical attention, if necessary, as soon as you recognize the symptoms. Left untreated, BED can steadily get worse and, in extreme cases, can also be life-threatening.

如果您还没有精神卫生保健提供者,则可以首先与初级保健医生交谈。描述您的暴饮暴食症状以及与行为相关的感觉。在约会前列出您正在经历的症状清单可能会有所帮助。确保包括所有相关的个人信息,例如任何饮食失调的家族史,重大压力,最近的生活变化以及典型的一天的饮食方式。除了进行身体检查外,还包括评估您是否因暴饮暴食而受到任何身体影响的测试外,您的医生可能会问有关您的日常食物习惯,您的想法以及您对体重和外观的想法和感觉的问题。不要犹豫,讨论您的情绪,思想或其他似乎与暴饮暴食无关的信息;重要的是要让您的提供者了解您的身心健康。

如有必要,您的医生应该能够将您转介给有执照的心理健康专业人员。从适当的教育,培训和经验的人那里寻求治疗以治疗床很重要。确保您同意他们的治疗床的方法,了解他们建议的治疗计划以及他们认为康复的主要目标。如果您对他们的答案不满意或与此人合作感到自在,请考虑寻求第二意见。

治疗床的精神卫生专业人员可能会从不同风格的治疗中汲取灵感,并使用各种工具来帮助您继续康复。第一线治疗通常是个体cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT),一对一的,相对短期的谈话疗法,可以帮助您了解思想,感觉和饮食行为之间的联系。您的治疗师将教您使您的饮食行为和思维模式正常化,目的是消除或至少减少暴饮暴食的发作。同时,CBT提供了应对压力的工具,并帮助您解决有关自己,身体类型和体重的负面思维模式。

Some research suggests that another form of talk therapy originally developed to great depression, known as interpersonal psychotherapy (ITP), might also help people suffering from eating disorders in which binge-ing behavior is present. ITP focuses less on food behavior and more on interpersonal relationship issues that may play a role perpetuating binge-purging behaviors. Some researchers feel that identifying and resolving these relationship issues may help reduce the frequency of those behaviors. ITP may be used in place of, or in conjunction with CBT, though studies have shown CBT to be the more efficient form of therapy.

In addition to psychological counseling, other treatments and approaches can help alleviate some of the symptoms and improve the behaviors associated with BED. Antidepressant or anti-anxiety medications may be prescribed to help with mood issues and, in cases of obesity, medications that induce weight loss may be used in conjunction with CBT. A registered dietitian or clinical nutritionist can help you achieve or maintain a healthy weight by teaching you more about good nutrition and helping you develop and follow a balanced eating plan. Your health care providers may also suggest adjunctive therapies like movement classes, meditation and mindfulness instruction, yoga, equine therapy, or art therapy. These programs won’t cure BED, they can help lower your stress levels, elevate your mood, improve your body image, and teach you to have a better sense of control over your life.

Successful treatment of BED most often relies on a combination of therapeutic approaches. A team of mental health care providers, medical providers, nutrition counselors, and other experts can all contribute to a safe and effective treatment plan.

如果您需要帮助,并且无法从您的直接支持圈中的某人那里获得帮助,请致电1-800-931-2237致电国家饮食失调协会无热线收费

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最后更新:2020年10月2日